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    Found the enzyme, which are "guarded" by fat reserves and does not lose weight

    Those who have ever dieted, you know that at some point, whatever you do people, weight stops at one point and no longer wishes to leave. Why is this happening?

    This is probably a kind of defense mechanism of the body, which thousands of years accustomed to accumulate and not to spend: he suddenly realizes that energy reserves are melting, and seeks to preserve what is left. Approximately the same "law of conservation of energy" works for all fat people: they spend less calories, because the body keeps reserves, which can still come in handy.

    The mechanisms underlying these processes still remain incompletely understood. Scientists could not understand what slows down weight loss. But now a team from the University of California in San Diego seems to have found the answer.

    The authors explain that the accumulation weight (including seasonal) is an ancient evolutionary advantage that helped our ancestors survive.

    In the new work they found that the most important "watchman" energy (and therefore, and fat) inventory is an enzyme called TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and its corresponding gene.

    Studying metabolism in obesity and starvation, the researchers found two so-called feedback loops, which are responsible for the self-regulation system. It's like a home thermostat that responds to temperature change, amplifying or reducing heating of the room, the authors write.

    In studies on mice, he observed the functioning of this complex mechanism. In obesity the body is under chronic stress, which causes inflammation through the activation of the path of NF-KB. This is a transcription factor that controls genes that determine immune response. Among these genes that includes the gene TBK1.

    When this gene is activated, automatically turns off the enzyme called AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the main regulators of energy expenditure. Thus, the reduced ability of cells to burn fat. In other words, this mechanism contributes to a reduction in energy expenditure in obesity.

    According to researchers, the enzyme AMPK also "feel" changes in the rate of energy expenditure when a person goes on a diet. The lack of calories the body, to the amount of energy remained at the same level, let in the consumption of adipocytes (fat cells). AMP-activated protein kinase notices this and starts the work of another enzyme TBK1. And then everything happens in the same scenario – the fat burning slows down.

    Thus, the feedback loop locks the expenditure of energy through an inflammatory process, the authors explain.

    When they blocked production of the enzyme TBK1 in mice with obesity, the consumption of energy recovered and the rodents began to lose weight. But there was something else: the inflammatory response in the body increased. In contrast, if the activation of this enzyme, the inflammation decreased (although not gone completely).

    Specialists conducted a similar experiment on mice, not obese (but not dieters). In this case, disabling TBK1 did not result in any changes. In other words, the enzyme contributes to the accumulation of fat reserves only in two conditions – obesity (existing) and fasting (regardless of whether the suffering from obesity go on a diet).

    According to scientists, this discovery will help develop new methods to combat obesity. The inhibition (suppression) of the enzyme TBK1 has the potential to restore normal calorie consumption, the authors say. Ahead – the development of drugs with desired functions.

    By the way, one already has in mind: it is anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drug amlexanox, which was developed in 1980-ies in Japan for the treatment of asthma.

    In 2017, the team have already tested the drug on mice, which, in addition to obesity, there was also a diabetes of the second type. Then the scientists announced that amlexanox really helped animals lose weight and increase their insulin sensitivity.

    Researchers believe that this drug has enormous potential, though their data will help to find new ways of solving the problem of obesity. The authors also remind anyone who wants to lose weight, that one only a diet will not help: it is necessary not only to reduce calorie intake and increase energy consumption. That was also proved by the researchers in this case.

    Learn more about this work and its outcome is covered in the article, which was published in Cell.

    By the way, before scientists found in the body of the inner "scales" watching fat deposits. In addition, obesity was "socially contagious".

    Friday 09 February 2018 - 21:05:32email to someone printer friendly create pdf of this news item
    Large landing ship "Ivan Gren" will give the fleet in the coming months

    The Russian Navy will receive a large landing ship "Ivan Gren" in late spring of this year. The transfer of "wait for a minute, the main thing – to end all events", said TASS, the head of the United shipbuilding Corporation Alexey Rakhmanov.

    BDK project 11711 "Ivan Gren" came down the stocks of the Baltic plant "Yantar" in 2012, but is still in testing. The entire Russian Navy ordered two ships. When will be launched the second, "Peter Morgunov" is not yet known. Its body is fully assembled, is the installation of onboard equipment.

    Large amphibious ships project 11711 capable of carrying up to 300 men, 13 tanks or 20 armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles. Displacement of the vessel – 6600 tons, maximum speed – 18 knots or 33 km / h. And if you go in economy mode, is about 16 knots, fuel ship will be enough to more than 6 thousand kilometers.

    Weapons from these amphibious ships modest. Still, their main task is transportation of soldiers and equipment. However, defensive weapons on BDK is. At the stern there is a pair of 6-barreled 30-mm guns AK-630M.

    A nose mounted gun mount "Duet". Tula gunsmiths were able to place one tower two 6-barrel rapid-fire guns. Together they produce up to 8 thousand shells per minute, and in emergency mode – up to 10 thousand. The gun is able not only to reliably protect the BBC against anti-ship missiles or enemy aircraft, but also support with fire landing.

    Friday 09 February 2018 - 21:05:20email to someone printer friendly create pdf of this news item
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