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     Source of mysterious cosmic radiation was nanodiamonds
    on Wednesday 13 June 2018
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    The solution of long-standing astronomical puzzle, precious dust in the "maternity ward" of the planets, and also new possible key to the origin of the Earth and the whole Universe – all this comes in a new study published by an international team of astronomers.

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) of our galaxy is emitted by the nanodiamonds. This conclusion is described in an article published in the journal Nature Astronomy group, headed by Jane graves (Jane Greaves) from Cardiff University in the UK.

    The nature of this radiation has long bothered scientists.

    "Although we know that this microwave "light" corresponds to any type of particle, its exact source is a mystery to us since, as it was first discovered almost 20 years ago," said graves in a press release of the study.

    Astronomers over the years have studied in detail the characteristics of the received electromagnetic waves. In particular, it was discovered several brightness peaks at frequencies of tens of gigahertz. On this basis, the physics, so to speak, has appointed several candidates for the role of the source. By far the most likely candidate was considered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The spectral "signature" of these substances do recently failed to detect in space. However, the involvement of these substances to the emission of the AME was no more than the most likely version.

    An additional difficulty is to establish an astronomical object that "glows". After all, the telescope receives radiation from some platform in the sky, in which the fall of the body located at various distances from Earth.

    Team graves have solved this problem by watching well-known objects, protoplanetary disks around young stars. All the authors are with the radio telescopes GBT and ATCA investigated 14 such objects. Three of them were sources of AME.

    "This is the first clear detection of anomalous microwave radiation coming from protoplanetary disks," explains David Frayer (David Frayer) from Observatory green Bank, co-author of the study.

    The whole point of the opening in which it drives. The mankind knows exactly three such object (V892 Tau, HD 97048 and MWC 297), in which independent monitoring has detected nanodiamonds. As discovered by the team of graves, it is this "Trinity" and emits a mysterious radiation.

    Meanwhile, protoplanetary disks, where other researchers were able to detect the line of PAHs showed no signs of AME. This led the authors to the idea that the source of the "microwave light" are the diamonds and not hydrocarbons.

    To justify their assumptions, the researchers conducted statistical analysis. The researchers calculated the probability that the result is random (for example, between the telescope and the "diamond" disc is another source of AME).

    "There is only one chance in 10,000 or even less that this relationship is random," says Frayer.

    "Using the method of Sherlock Holmes, excluding all alternative explanations, we can confidently say that the best candidate is capable of producing this microwave glow, are nanodiamonds around these newly formed stars" – echoes graves.

    While scientists believe that the gems with 0.75 and 1.1 nm or more is not uncommon in the Universe. They should be 1-2% of the total mass of carbon in any protoplanetary disk. There they are formed during the solidification of the superheated gaseous carbon. By the way, about as nanodiamonds produced in some terrestrial laboratories.

    Diamonds of similar size and found in meteorites, relics of the early youth of the Solar system. In General, the various proofs of the existence of nanodiamonds in protoplanetary disks accumulate for several decades.

    The researchers also explained how the nanodiamonds give rise to AME. Crystals nanodiamonds possess a dipole moment. Because of this, revolving around its axis, they can generate electromagnetic waves. This is particularly true for hydrated Anastasov (in their composition it is possible to find atoms of hydrogen).

    Since the nanodiamonds are much smaller than conventional particles of cosmic dust, they rotate much faster. This allows them to radiate in the "good" microwave frequency: the signal does not sink in the galactic background. These electromagnetic waves, as suggested by the authors, known as AME.

    Why is it that every protoplanetary disk, which has a lot of, is not the source of these rays? The fact that the precious stones are very capricious. To "Shine" brightly enough for current telescopes, they need a star of unusually large luminosity. These stars and is located in the center of the three disks described above.

    "This is a wonderful and unexpected solution to the puzzle of the anomalous microwave radiation," concludes graves.

    The obtained results are important not only as an explanation of the nature of the mysterious phenomenon. This is a new "communication channel" for the study of the protoplanetary cloud from which we will see new worlds. In this process once formed and the Earth, so that observations of distant stars may shed light on the history of our own planet.

    In addition, the opening there is another aspect. "Science" ( told in detail about the inflationary model of the Universe. To confirm this exciting theory, astronomers can precisely measure the polarization of the CMB. And for this it is important to exclude all possible interferences.

    If AME really are the product of the rotation of nanodiamonds, the polarization of these waves is easy to calculate, and it should be very small. Therefore, we can consider the contribution from this emission to the total signal and more precisely to highlight the characteristics of the cosmic background.

    The authors hope to collect even more information about AME and confirm the opening, when will come into operation a new receiver for the radio telescope ALMA and the next generation of an array of radio telescopes and the VLA.

    The word "Conduct.Science" more than once wrote about precious stones in the depths of the cosmos. For example, we told you about the diamond rain in the depths of planets, and entire worlds more than a third of diamonds.

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