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     Biologists first studied the composition of microorganisms and particles that people inhale
    Добавлено: Вторник 25 Сентябрь 2018
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    Along with the air each of us breathes every minute a huge number of bacteria, viruses, fungi, chemicals, particles of vegetable and animal origin. This "personal" environment "on the breath" is called Expocom. And now scientists have studied its composition in unprecedented detail.

    A man is never alone: billions of dollars in the multitude of organisms living not only within him but also within easy reach.

    If you combine that cloud with other external factors like chemicals and different particles of vegetable and animal origin, we get a kind of "personal" environment, which scientists call the term Expocom.

    Experts recently have begun to accumulate data in this area and examine how the composition of exosome can affect the life and health of a person. New large-scale work was presented by the research team from the Medical school at Stanford University under Professor Michael Snyder (Michael Snyder).

    "Human health is influenced by two things: his DNA and environment. People measure parameters such as air pollution, on a large scale, but none have measured biological and chemical effects at the individual level. No one knows how extensive the human Expocom and what it consists of," says Snyder.

    His team decided to fill this gap. To participate in the experiment, the experts invited 15 people who lived in different parts of San Francisco and its suburbs and visited more than 50 different locations.

    Volunteers were given advanced team to monitor air quality, which are mounted on the arm and continuously draw some air from the personal space of the person.

    Devices no bigger than a deck of cards was equipped with a sub-micron filter that captures particulates. The data obtained on the bacteria, fungi, viruses, chemicals, that is all that has consumed the device, then went to the lab Snyder.

    Some of the participants had to wear the device for weeks, others a month. And the head of the project carried the device for two years. (By the way, this is not the first experiment of Snyder, in which he participated personally. Prior to this, the Professor wore his team developed biosensors and "smart" watches, by which he himself was diagnosed with Lyme disease).

    In the next phase of this study, the experts conducted DNA sequencing and RNA isolated microorganisms, and conducted chemical profiling for the identification of substances which are inhaled by the participants.

    Then, the team systematized the information and created a separate database on bacteria, viruses and fungi, as well as more large-scale database called "panoramic", which cover more than 40 thousand species of microorganisms, particles of vegetable and animal origin.

    "We handle these samples in incredible detail. We had about $ 70 billion in exposure," says Snyder.

    The results showed that even in a relatively small geographic region of exosome can be very different.

    "Even at very close distances we [showed] different exposanita profiles, or "signatures". These "personal signatures" is mainly traces of specific fungi, plants, chemicals and bacteria, which constantly observed to one person or around him," — says the Professor.

    He explains that part of the "personal" environment depends on many factors – the presence of Pets, contact with household chemicals and flowering plants, and even weather conditions.

    For each person, the researchers noted exposanita unique "signature". Coincided just a few parameters – particles of repellent for repelling insects and some carcinogens. And in "home" exosome of Snyder and his colleagues noted the high content of fungi. The Professor explained that his house is painted with environmentally friendly "green" paint that does not contain chemical that kills fungi.

    Another interesting conclusion is that expomoney profile may change not only depending on the weather, but also the time of year. For example, in the spring flowering season has increased the levels of vegetable matter (which many husband is allergic).

    In the future, the team plans to collect more information and expand the geography of research expocomic "signatures". In addition, it is important to examine in more detail the microorganisms and chemicals that people inhale every minute, and understand what impact they can have on health. It is possible that in the future the composition of exosome can be considered in the diagnosis and therapy of certain diseases and disorders.

    Finally, another goal of Snyder is to simplify the technology of data collection, so that everyone could at least in General to understand what is in his "personal space".

    Read more about this work and its results are described in the article, which was published in the journal Cell.

    Earlier, the authors of the project "Conduct.Science" ( reported that the polluted air pollutes the human brain with magnetic particles and can even degrade your ability to learn.

    However, there is danger of the person and the house: it may be parasites of cat urine, excrement of bed bugs, cleaning products, "dust collectors" like carpets and even seemingly innocuous means like shampoos, nail polishes and perfume.

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