Astronomers have figured out how to peek behind the birth of a supermassive black hole

SL, Пятница 21 Сентябрь 2018 - 09:42:24

Researchers have found a way to distinguish through the telescope the details of the formation of a supermassive black hole (NCC) status. Different scenarios of this process can be distinguished from each other through observation tool, which will come into operation in 2021. These findings are outlined in a scientific paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy group led by John Weiss (John Wise) of the Georgia Institute of Technology.

As you know, in the centers of many galaxies (including ours) have black holes weighing millions or billions of suns. How are they formed? A comprehensive answer to this question is no. While astronomers don't even know whether there is such an object simultaneously with its galaxy after its formation, or even in front of him.

The fact that astronomers have never observed the formation of supermassive black holes. But they will soon have the chance.

Recall that the distant objects we see as they were at the time of emission of light (or other radiation). Therefore, the objects, separated from us by billions of light-years, we are seeing very young. Until now, the telescopes could not look into the depths of the Universe to "catch" the formation of galaxies and CCD in them. However, the space telescope "James Webb" (James Webb Space Telescope), the launch of which is scheduled for 2021, will be able to do it.

Of course, he sees not the black hole itself, and falling on her cloud of gas and dust. In this regard it is appropriate to ask how an observer can understand what is happening behind the veil. The answer to this question and was looking for a team of Weiss.

"In the centers of many large galaxies have supermassive black holes, but we have not had the opportunity to observe how they are formed and how they become so big, says kirk barrow (Kirk Barrow), the first author, also from Georgia Institute of Technology. – Scientists have suggested that these supermassive black holes could have formed at the birth of the galaxy, and we wanted to turn these theoretical predictions in predictions about the observational facts which could be seen at the space telescope "James Webb".

The authors have simulated on a supercomputer, the formation of a black hole from a huge cloud of matter. The modeling was based only from the fundamental physical laws relating to gravity, radiation and hydrodynamics.

"If the galaxy first formed, and then a black hole in its center, it will have certain Supervisory features, says Weiss. – Were they different, if the black hole formed first? We wanted to find out whether any physical differences, and if so, transformirovalsya whether they in the differences that we could observe with the space telescope "James Webb".

According to the simulation results, education SCD takes about a million years. In the first stage of the gas cloud formed a "superstar" weight of a hundred thousand suns. However, under its own gravity compressed it into a black hole.

The radiation falling on the baby SCD substances ionize the surrounding gas. It starts the process, accelerating the formation of stars. This "baby boom" continues for about 500 thousand years.

"The stars of this first generation are usually much more massive [than our Sun], so they live for a shorter period of time, explains Weiss. In the first five or six million years after their formation they die and become a supernova. ("Fireworks" from supernova – approx. ed.) another potential observational fact about which we report in this study".

Then "salute" the primary source of information for "James Webb" will be a private ultraviolet radiation falling on SCD substances. The red shift will turn it into infrared rays, which meant a telescope.

The researchers found the details in the infrared spectrum of the object, which will indicate how to create a black hole and how this process was connected with the birth of the galaxy. According to their forecasts, the space telescope will need a total of 5.6 hours of observation time to gather the necessary information. After that, astronomers can tell which of the competing scenarios is closer to the truth.

"This is one of the last great mysteries of the early Universe, concludes barrow. We hope that this study will be a good step to figuring out how these supermassive black holes formed at the birth of the galaxy."

We will remind that earlier "News.Science" (nauka.vesti.ru) spoke about the project, which sought to discern the "surface" of a supermassive black hole, that the milky Way can wander a few giants and fastest growing black hole.




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