Will help in the treatment of fractures: first discovered skeletal human stem cells

SL, Пятница 21 Сентябрь 2018 - 15:49:27

Recently, researchers have found human stem cells that turn into bone cells, cartilage and other tissues that make up the skeleton of the body.

For years, the experts around the world led the hunt for such cells. Discovery research group, three years ago discovered the same cells in mice, will help in the development of new methods of treatment of fractures, joint injury and osteoporosis.

The study, published in Cell, the authors show that skeletal stem cells are self-renewing and multipotent (able to differentiate into different Mature cell types of one tissue).

As noted above, the researchers do not one year was engaged in search of the skeletal stem cells. Thanks to the earlier "hunting expeditions" the researchers found the so-called mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). They are able to differentiate into bone cells and cartilage as well as adipose, muscle, connective tissues. In other words, MSCS are cells of "wide profile".

The researchers also sought to identify the cells that give rise exclusively to skeletal tissue. In 2015 experts under the leadership of craniofacial (cranio-facial) surgeon from Stanford University Michael Longaker (Michael Longaker) studied the MSCS in the organism "rainbow mice".

We are talking about the rodents that have been genetically engineered so that different types of stem cells have different colors. This allowed researchers to accurately keep track of which of them gave rise to cells that form the skeleton.

The researchers then identified the genes in these cells, identifying the genetic signature (signed) for skeletal stem cell in mice.

Despite this success, the researchers was hard enough to achieve already with human skeletal stem cells. Says Longaker, this is not so easy, because we have a "no rainbow people."

Experts worked with the bone tissue of human embryos. In them, scientists searched for cells having similar genetic signature with the stem cells of mice in the cartilaginous growth plate (the area where the need to grow bone). From these cells the researchers isolated those that would form new bone and cartilage in a Petri dish.

To confirm that they are indeed found skeletal stem cells, scientists have found fragments of bone of an adult, which were recently removed during surgery to replace hip and knee joints. The researchers found cells with the same "signature" and grew them in a Petri dish. Cells newly formed bone and cartilage.

It is important that the cells do not become fat, muscle or other tissues.

"They [the cells] were true skeletal stem cells," notes Longaker, which by the way, speaks about himself as "a biologist studying stem cells, trapped in the body of a plastic surgeon".

To find a reliable method for the production of a greater number of such cells that experts has cultivated some genetically modified cells of adults called induced pluripotent stem cells in the vessel with compounds that stimulate the growth of bone tissue, and vitamins. These cells also gave rise only to the bones and cartilage.

The study revealed one unexpected potential source of skeletal stem cells — liposuction fat.

Certain cells called stromal inside blood vessels in adipose tissue is actually a type of stem cells. By isolating such cells and growing them in a Petri dish with a growth factor of bone, scientists have created skeletal stem cells.

Despite the fact that to practical application is still very far away, experts suggest that such cells can be used to replace damaged bones and joints as well as treating degenerative skeletal disease (osteoporosis of the same).

As noted in the press release, the skeletal tissue have exceptional regenerative (recovery) potential. Bone defects heal quickly, and some vertebrates are capable of regenerating entire limbs.

Meanwhile, the regenerative capacity of skeletal tissues of other vertebrates more limited: for example, the bones of mice and humans can regenerate after minor injuries, and cartilage adults practically do not have such feature. In addition, in rodents and humans show severe age-related degeneration of skeletal tissues.

Skeletal dysfunction can lead to a wide range of diseases. One of the obstacles to the treatment of such conditions is that the regulation of stem cells in the skeletal system of the human has remained largely unexplored.

For this reason, the discovery of skeletal stem cells may help scientists develop new treatments for such diseases.

"For many years there were debates about the true skeletal stem cells," says Richard Oreffo (Richard Oreffo), biologist studying stem cells at the University of Southampton. According to him, the research clearly demonstrates that these cells are, firstly, exist, and secondly, are self-healing. "Much remains to be done, but this is a huge step forward," says Oreffo.

Previously, the authors of the project "Conduct.Science" (nauka.vesti.ru) told me that the stem cells will help to reconstruct the skull and face of a person after injury. In addition, scientists have found that magnetic nanoparticles helped all those stem cells to grow bone.

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